# Pool Integration

# Share validation

I have written a C++ backend which support computes the hash product

  • Verushash(header)*Sha256t(header)^0.7

This is a number between 0 and 1. If the first condition

  1. Sha256t(header) > c for some hard-coded constant c.

is not met it returns 1. This is a convenient way for pools to check valid shares: Instead of using the block real target, the pool would set an easier difficulty in Stratum jobs, which corresponds to a larger target t^* than the block target t. A share is valid if the hash product returned by the backend is smaller than t^*. If the returned value is 1 as is done by the backend if the first condition above is not met, the share is automatically invalid because t^* will be between 0 and 1.

The pool backend has two endpoints:

  1. /score/:headerhex: It computes the score above (hash product). For performance the score is not embedded into json encoded but directly returned. On error an empty string is returned. headerhex is the hex encoded header (80 bytes = 160 bytes hex encoded).
  2. /target_to_double/:targethex: It converts the block target from byte representation to double. This is important to check if the score actually solves a block.

# Block structure

Each block consists of a 10 extranonce bytes followed by 3 sections:

# 1. New address section (2+n1*20 bytes)

This section starts by encoding the number n1 of new addresses registered in this block, then n1 elements of 20 bytes each follow.

# 2. Reward section (16 bytes)

This section encodes the mining reward (miner + amount).

# 3. Transfer section (4+n3*99 bytes)

It starts by encoding the number n3 of transfers in a 4 byte network byte order integer. Then follow n3 entries of 99 bytes each, one for each transfer. If n3 is 0 then the transfer section is omitted completely, in this case it is 0 bytes long. Miner devs can detect this by comparing the current cursor with the end of the block byte vector when parsing the sections of a block.

# Merkle Root Computation

Merkle tree has the n1 + 1 + n3 elements of the three sections as its leaves: n1 20 byte elements, one 16 byte element and n3 99 byte elements. The Merkle tree uses sha256 to combine two elements into one in each hierarchy level.

Merkle root is computed this way:

Hash BodyView::merkleRoot() const
    std::vector<Hash> hashes(nAddresses + nRewards + nTransfers);

    // hash addresses
    size_t idx = 0;
    for (size_t i = 0; i < nAddresses; ++i)
        hashes[idx++] = hashSHA256(s.data() + offsetAddresses + i * AddressSize, AddressSize);

    // hash payouts
    for (size_t i = 0; i < nRewards; ++i)
        hashes[idx++] = hashSHA256(data() + offsetRewards + i * RewardSize, RewardSize);
    // hash payments
    for (size_t i = 0; i < nTransfers; ++i)
        hashes[idx++] = hashSHA256(data() + offsetTransfers + i * TransferSize, TransferSize);
    std::vector<Hash> tmp, *from, *to;
    from = &hashes;
    to = &tmp;

    do {
        to->resize((from->size() + 1) / 2);
        size_t j = 0;
        for (size_t i = 0; i < (from->size() + 1) / 2; ++i) {
            HasherSHA256 hasher {};
            hasher.write((*from)[j].data(), 32);
            if (j + 1 < from->size()) {
                hasher.write((*from)[j + 1].data(), 32);

            if (to->size() == 1)
                hasher.write(data(), 10);
            (*to)[i] = std::move(hasher);
            j += 2;
        std::swap(from, to);
    } while (from->size() > 1);
    return from->front();

In the last step we append the 10 byte extranonce space from the beginning of the block to the hashed data for the final hash. The data we append these 10 extranonce to we call merklePrefix. The Merkle root is therefore sha256(merklePrefix + extranonceBytes). The merklePrefix is transmitted in the Stratum protocol. It is either 32 bytes or 64 bytes long. Only if you have 1 leaf in the Merkle tree, the Merkle prefix will be 32 bytes, otherwise the Merkle prefix will be the two children of the root concatenated.

# Scanning the Chain


# Pool Payout

Wallet integration

# Miners for Testing